catholic church and the age of discovery

Hence, heartily commending in the Lord this your holy and praiseworthy purpose, and desirous that it be duly accomplished, and that the name of our Savior be carried into those regions, we exhort you very earnestly in the Lord and by your reception of holy baptism, whereby you are bound to our apostolic commands, and by the bowels of the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, enjoy strictly, that inasmuch as with eager zeal for the true faith you design to equip and despatch this expedition, you purpose also, as is your duty, to lead the peoples dwelling in those islands and countries to embrace the Christian religion; nor at any time let dangers or hardships deter you therefrom, with the stout hope and trust in your hearts that Almighty God will further your undertakings. New York, NY 10024 Because some people questioned whether the Indians were truly men who deserved baptism, Pope Paul III in the papal bull Veritas Ipsa or Sublimis Deus (1537) confirmed that the Indians were deserving men. But since the 1960s, Protestant evangelism and new religious movements have begun to strongly compete with Catholicism in South America, while various approaches to evangelism have been developed. After a journey among the Bari in South America, the ethnologist Robert Jaulin called for a convention on ethnocide in the Americas at the Congress of Americanists, and, in February 1970, the French Society of Americanists convened for that purpose. News of the 1534 apparition on Tepayac Hill spread quickly through Mexico; and in the seven years that followed, 1532 through 1538, the Indian people accepted the Spaniards and 8 million people were converted to the Catholic faith. Because of this it is idle to ask, as is frequently done, whether the Portuguese pioneers and Castilian conquistadores were motivated more by greed or by religious zeal.

More traditional theologians legitimized the conquest while at the same time limiting the absolute power of the sovereign, which was celebrated in others parts of Europe under the developing notion of the divine right of kings. (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1997), 455. The example essays in Kibin's library were written by real students for real classes. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003), 42.

They challenged the singing of Protestant hymns and reading of the King James Bible in the classroom. In 1415, the Portuguese captured the city of Ceuta and continued to expand their control along the coast of Morocco. What hooks you? This created difficulties with American Catholics. [13], According to Stanley G. Payne, "[T]he expansion of the faith was inextricably intertwined with military glory and economic They had no immunity to European diseases, with subsequent indigenous tribal population falls. Portugal and Spain continued to dispute control of the Canary Islands. Some historians blame the Church for not doing enough to liberate the Indians; others point to the Church as the only voice raised on behalf of indigenous peoples. When Islam presented a serious military threat to Italy and Central Europe during mid-15th Century, Pope Nicholas V tried to unite Christendom against them but failed. The process began with the formation of special jurisdictions, known as apostolic prefectures and apostolic vicariates. However enforcement was lax, and some historians blame the Church for not doing enough to liberate the Indians; others point to the Church as the only voice raised on behalf of indigenous peoples. At the time of their peak influence, members of the Jesuit delegation were considered some of the emperor's most valued and trusted advisors, holding numerous prestigious posts in the imperial government. The expedition included two Franciscan friars. Church growth came to a halt in 1597 under the Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu who, in an effort to isolate the country from foreign influences, launched a severe persecution of Christians. [14] Several decades later, European colonizers and missionaries spread Catholicism to the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania. The French colonial effort began later than that of the Spanish or Portuguese. The Virgin of Guadalupe is one of Mexico's oldest religious images, and is said to have appeared to Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin in 1531. News of the 1534 apparition on Tepayac Hill spread quickly through Mexico; and in the seven years that followed, 1532 through 1538, the Indian people accepted the Spaniards and 8 million people were converted to the Catholic faith.

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